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References: Computer Interfaces for Young Children


Developmental Issues of Young Children Using Computers

"Toddlers Log On," Times Educational Supplement, London (Dec 6, 1996): SS 11-13.

Atkins, M.J, "Theories of learning and multimedia applications: An overview," Research Papers in Education (vol. 8, 1993): 251-271.

Clements, D.H., B.K. Nastasi and Sudha Swaminathan. "Research in review: Young children and computers: Crossroads and directions from research," Young Children (vol 48, Jan 1993): 56-64.

Clements, D.H. and B.K. Nastasi. "Computers and early childhood education," Advances in School Psychology: Preschool and Early Childhood Treatment Directions, M. Gettinger et al, eds. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1992, p. 187-246.

Johnston, Chris, "Infants warned off computers," Times Educational Supplement, London (Jun 18, 1999): 7.

Perry, Bruce, "Interview: Young children and technology," Scholastic Parent and Child (vol 6 no 2, Apr/May 1999): 45.

Shade, D.D. and J.A.Watson, "Computers in early education: Issues put to rest, theoretical links to sound practice, and the potential contribution of microworlds," Journal of Educational Computing Research (vol. 6, 1990): 375-392.

Trotter, Andrew, "Software for preschoolers makes market inroads," Education Week (December 11, 1996),

Yuji, Hiroki, "Computer games and information-processing skills," Perceptual and Motor Skills (vol 83 no 2, Oct 1996): 643-7.


Social Development

Inkpen, K. et al. "The effect of turn-taking protocols on children’s learning in mouse-driven collaborative environments," Proceedings of Graphic/Vision Interface ’97. Canadian Information Processing Society, Toronto, Ontario, 1997, p. 138-45.

Davidson, Jane Irene. Children and Computers Together in the Early Childhood Classroom. Delmar, 1989.


Physical Development

Lang, Susan S, "Computers put young schoolchildren at risk for posture problems," Human Ecology Forum (vol 27 no 2, Spring 1999): 2.


Input Devices

Browder, Seanna, "Mighty mice for teeny hands," Business Week (June 3, 1996): 75.

Crook, Charles, "Young children’s skill in using a mouse to control a graphical computer interface," Computers and Education (v.19 n.3, Oct 1992): 199-207.

Joiner, R. et al. "It is better to point for young children: A comparison of children’s pointing and dragging," Computers in Human Behavior (vol 14 no 3, 1998): 513-529.

McWilliams, Gary, "Babes in cyberland: Can Compaq turn the PC into a plaything for tots?" Business Week (January 15, 1996): 38.

Strommen, Erik. "Preschool children at the interface: A cognitive model of device difficulty," Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Proceedings at the Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, January 13-15, 1993.


Graphics and Animation in Children’s Software

Jones, Tom, "Children and animated computer icons," Journal of Research on Computing in Education (Spring 1990): 300-309.

Mayer, R.E. and R.B. Anderson, "The instructive animation: helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning," Journal of Educational Psychology (vol 84, 1992): 444-52.

Rieber, L.P., "Using computer animated graphics in science instruction with children," Journal of Educational Psychology (vol 82, 1990): 135-40.

Sales, G.C. The effect of written, spoken and animated spoken feedback in computer-based instruction. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, California, April 1992.

Sales, G.C., B. Tsai and R. McLeod, "The evolution of K-12 instructional software: an analysis of leading microcomputer-based programs from 1981-1988," Journal of Computer-Based Instruction (vol 18, no 2, 1991): 41-47.


Usability Testing of Software with Children

Freedman, Kerry and Greg Sales. "Children’s use of narrative and graphical information in a database: recommendations for development," Journal of Research on Computing in Education (vol 30, no 4, Summer 1998): 329-40.

Hakansson, Joyce. "Lessons learned from kids: One developer’s point of view," The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design, Brenda Laurel, ed. Apple Computer, Inc, 1990, p. 123-130.

Halgren, Shannon L., Tony Fernandes and Deanna Thomas. "Amazing Animation: Movie Making for Kids Design Briefing," Proceedings for the Association for Computing Machinery SIG-CHI Conference 1995.


Developmental Appropriateness of Software and Professional Reviews

Bucklitner, W. Orr, A. and Wolcock, E.The Complete Sourcebook on Children's Software. High/Scope, 1999. ISBN: 1-891983-03-2

HACH Curriculum. Children’s Software Revue. #B901376

_______________. Young Kids and Computers: Parent’s Survival Guide. #B90164

Hohmann,C. (1990). Young Children and Computers. High/Scope Publishers. ISBN: 0-931114-24-1

Wright, June and Daniel Shade. Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age. Washington DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1994.


Product Sources and Consumer Reviews

Technology for Education:

Computer Learning Centers by HACH:

Multimedia Mom Network Software Reviews:

SuperKids Educational Software Reviews:

eToys Favorite Software:

High/Scope Educational Research Foundation:



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