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1 Winograd, Terry, ed. Bringing Design to Software. ACM Press, 1996, p. xviii

2 Atkins, M.J, "Theories of learning and multimedia applications: An overview," Research Papers in Education (vol. 8, 1993): 251-271.

3 Shade, D.D. and J.A.Watson, "Computers in early education: Issues put to rest, theoretical links to sound practice, and the potential contribution of microworlds," Journal of Educational Computing Research (vol. 6, 1990): 375-392.

4 Johnston, Chris, "Infants warned off computers," Times Educational Supplement, London (Jun 18, 1999): 7.

5 Perry, Bruce, "Interview: Young children and technology," Scholastic Parent and Child (vol 6 no 2, Apr/May 1999): 45.

6 Yuji, Hiroki, "Computer games and information-processing skills," Perceptual and Motor Skills (vol 83 no 2, Oct 1996): 643-7.

7 Trotter, Andrew, "Software for preschoolers makes market inroads," Education Week (December 11, 1996),

8 Clements, D.H. and B.K. Nastasi. "Computers and early childhood education," Advances in School Psychology: Preschool and Early Childhood Treatment Directions, M. Gettinger et al, eds. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1992, p. 187-246.

9 HACH Learning Centers:

10 The Young Explorer:

11 Lang, Susan S, "Computers put young schoolchildren at risk for posture problems," Human Ecology Forum (vol 27 no 2, Spring 1999): 2.

12 Joiner, R. et al. "It is better to point for young children: A comparison of children’s pointing and dragging," Computers in Human Behavior (vol 14 no 3, 1998): 513-529.

13 Crook, Charles, "Young children’s skill in using a mouse to control a graphical computer interface," Computers and Education (v.19 n.3, Oct 1992): p.206.

14 Crook, p. 206.

15 Crook, p. 206.

16 Winnie-the-Pooh Cool Stuff for Computers:

17 KidTRAC Trackball:

18 Marsh-Wetherell, Barbara K. "Microspeed releases the KidTRAC trackball," KidTRAC Press Release:

19 Microsoft EasyBall:

20 Browder, Seanna, "Mighty mice for teeny hands," Business Week (June 3, 1996): 75.

21 KB Gear SketchBoard:

22 Little Tykes SkiDoodle

23 Webchild KidBoard:

24 LittleFingers keyboard:

25 KidDesk Internet Safe:

26 Winograd, Terry. "Software design and architecture," Bringing Design to Software. ACM Press, 1996, p. 13.

27 Mayer, R.E. and R.B. Anderson, "The instructive animation: helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning," Journal of Educational Psychology (vol 84, 1992): 444-52.

28 Rieber, L.P., "Using computer animated graphics in science instruction with children," Journal of Educational Psychology (vol 82, 1990): 135-40.

29 Sales, G.C. The effect of written, spoken and animated spoken feedback in computer-based instruction. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, California, April 1992.

30 Sales, G.C., B. Tsai and R. McLeod, "The evolution of K-12 instructional software: an analysis of leading microcomputer-based programs from 1981-1988," Journal of Computer-Based Instruction (vol 18, no 2, 1991): 41-47.

31 Laurel, Brenda, ed. The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design. Apple Computer, 1990, p. xiii.

32 Clements & Nastasi, 1993, p. 61.

33 Hohmann, C. Young children and computers. High/Scope Publishers, 1990.

34 NAEYC, 1991.

35 Norman, Donald. The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books, 1988, p. 42.

36 Norman, p. 140.

37 Liddle, David. "Design of the conceptual model," Bringing Design to Software, Terry Winograd, ed. ACM Press, 1996, p. 20

38 Norman, p. 57.

39 Samaras, Anastasia P., "Children’s computers," Childhood Education (vol 72, no 3, Spring 1996): 133-136.

40 Berk, L. and A. Winsler. Scaffolding children’s learning: Vygotsky and early childhood education. Vol. 7 of the NAEYC Research into Practice Series. NAEYC, 1995.

41 Rogoff, B. Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. Oxford University Press, 1990.

42 Liddle, p. 20.

43 Little Tykes Cozy Coupe mouse:

44 Crook, p. 206.

45 Creative Wonders Elmo’s Computer Phone:

46 Jones, Tom, "Children and animated computer icons," Journal of Research on Computing in Education (Spring 1990): 300-309.

47 Perry, p. 45.


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